Monday, February 23, 2015

Errors Versus Quality

Are Errors a Moral Issue?

NOTE: This essay is the second of a series of blogs adapted from my Quality Software, Volume 2, Why Software Gets in Trouble: Fault Patterns


Errors in software used to be a moral issue for me, and still are for many writers. Perhaps that's why these writers have asserted that "quality is the absence of errors." 

It must be a moral issue for them, because otherwise it would be a grave error in reasoning. Here's how their reasoning might have gone wrong. Perhaps they observed that when their work is interrupted by numerous software errors, they can't appreciate any other good software qualities. From this observation, they can conclude that many errors will make software worthless—i.e., zero quality.
But here's the fallacy: Though copious errors guarantee worthlessness, but zero errors guarantees nothing at all about the value of software.
Let's take one example. Would you offer me $100 for a zero defect program to compute the horoscope of Philip Amberly Warblemaxon, who died in 1927 after a 37-year career as a filing clerk in a hat factory in Akron? I doubt you would even offer me fifty cents, because to have value, software must be more than perfect. It must be useful to someone.
Still, I would never deny the importance of errors. First of all, if I did, people in Routine, Oblivious and Variable organizations would stop reading this book. To them, chasing errors is as natural as chasing sheep is to a German Shepherd Dog. And, as we've seen, when they are shown the rather different life of a Steering organization, they simply don't believe it.
Second of all, I do know that when errors run away from us, that's one of the ways to lose quality. Perhaps our customers will tolerate 10,000 errors, but, as Tom DeMarco asked me, will they tolerate 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000? In this sense, errors are a matter of quality. Therefore, we must train people to make fewer errors, while at the same time managing the errors they do make, to keep them from running away.

The Terminology of Error

I've sometimes found it hard to talk about the dynamics of error in software because there are many different ways of talking about errors themselves. One of the best ways for a consultant to assess the software engineering maturity of an organization is by the language they use, particularly the language they use to discuss error. To take an obvious example, those who call everything "bugs" are a long way from taking responsibility for controlling their own process. Until they start using precise and accurate language, there's little sense in teaching such people about basic dynamics.

Faults and failures. First of all, it pays to distinguish between failures (the symptoms) and
faults (the diseases). Musa gives these definitions:

A failure "is the departure of the external results of program operation from requirements." A fault "is the defect in the program that, when executed under particular conditions, causes a failure." For example:
An accounting program had a incorrect instruction (fault) in the formatting routine that inserts commas in large numbers such as "$4,500,000". Any time a user prints a number greater than six digits, a comma may be missing (a failure). Many failures resulted from this one fault.
How many failures result from a single fault? That depends on
• the location of the fault
• how long the fault remains before it is removed
• how many people are using the software.
The comma-insertion fault led to millions of failures because it was in a frequently used piece of code, in software that has thousands of users, and it remained unresolved for more than a year.
When studying error reports in various clients, I often find that they mix failures and faults in the same statistics, because they don't understand the distinction. If these two different measures are mixed into one, it will be difficult to understand their own experiences. For instance, because a single fault can lead to many failures, it would be impossible to compare failures between two organizations who aren't careful in making this "semantic" distinction.
Organization A has 100,000 customers who use their software product, each  for an average of 3 hours a day. Organization B has a single customer who uses one software system once a month. Organization A produces 1 fault per thousand lines of code, and receives over 100 complaints a day. Organization B produces 100 faults per thousand lines of code, but receives only one complaint a month.
Organization A claims they are better software developers than Organization B. Organization B claims they are better software developers than Organization A. Perhaps they're both right.
The System Trouble Incident (STI). Because of the important distinction between faults and failures, I encourage my clients to keep at least two different statistics. The first of these is a data base of "system trouble incidents," or STIs. In my books, I mean an STI to be an "incident report of one failure as experienced by a customer or simulated customer (such as a tester)."
I know of no industry standard nomenclature for these reports—except that they invariably take the form of TLAs (Three Letter Acronyms). The TLAs I have encountered include:
- STR, for "software trouble report"
- SIR, for "software incident report," or "system incident report"
- SPR, for "software problem report," or "software problem record"
- MDR, for "malfunction detection report"
- CPI, for "customer problem incident"
- SEC, for "significant error case,"
- SIR, for "software issue report"- DBR, for "detailed bug report," or "detailed bug record"- SFD, for "system failure description"- STD, for "software trouble description," or "software trouble detail"
I generally try to follow my client's naming conventions, but try hard to find out exactly what is meant. I encourage them to use unique, descriptive names. It tells me a lot about a software organization when they use more than one TLA for the same item. Workers in that organization are confused, just as my readers would be confused if I kept switching among ten TLAs for STIs. The reasons I prefer STI to some of the above are as follows:
1. It makes no prejudgment about the fault that led to the failure. For instance, it might have been a misreading of the manual, or a mistyping that wasn't noticed. Calling it a bug, an error, a failure, or a problem, tends to mislead.
2. Calling it a "trouble incident" implies that once upon a time, somebody, somewhere, was sufficiently troubled by something that they happened to bother making a report. Since our definition of quality is "value to some person," someone being troubled implies that it's worth something to look at the STI.
3. The words "software" and "code" also contain a presumption of guilt, which may unnecessarily restrict location and correction activities. We might correct an STI with a code fix, but we might also change a manual, upgrade a training program, change our ads or our sales pitch, furnish a help message, change the design, or let it stand unchanged. The word "system" says to me that any part of the overall system may contain the fault, and any part (or parts) may receive the corrective activity.
4. The word "customer" excludes troubled people who don't happen to be customers, such as programmers, analysts, salespeople, managers, hardware engineers, or testers. We should be so happy to receive reports of troublesome incidents before they get to customers that we wouldn't want to discourage anybody.
Similar principles of semantic precision might guide your own design of TLAs, to remove one more source of error, or one more impediment to their removal. Pattern 3 organizations always use TLAs more precisely than do Pattern 1 and 2 organizations.
System Fault Analysis(SFA). The second statistic is a database of information on faults, which I call SFA, for System Fault Analysis. Few of my clients initially keep such a database separate from their STIs, so I haven't found such a diversity of TLAs. Ed Ely tells me, however, that he has seen the name RCA, for "Root Cause Analysis." Since RCA would never do, the name SFA is a helpful alternative because:
1. It clearly speaks about faults, not failures. This is an important distinction. No SFA is created until a fault has been identified. When a SFA is created, it is tied back to as many STIs as possible. The time lag between the earliest STI and the SFA that clears it up can be an important dynamic measure.
2. It clearly speaks about the system, so the database can contain fault reports for faults found anywhere in the system.
3. The word "analysis" correctly implies that data is the result of careful thought, and is not to be completed unless and until someone is quite sure of their reasoning.
"Fault" does not imply blame. One deficiency with the semantics of the term"fault" is the possible implication of blame, as opposed to information. In an SFA, we must be careful to distinguish two places associated with a fault, neither of these implies anything about whose "fault" it was:
a. origin: at what stage in our process the fault originated
correction: what part(s) of the system will be changed to remedy the fault
Routine, Oblivious and Variable organizations tend to equate these two notions, but the motto, "you broke it, you fix it," often leads to an unproductive "blame game." "Correction" tells us where it was wisest, under the circumstances, to make the changes, regardless of what put the fault there in the first place. For example, we might decide to change the documentation—not because the documentation was bad, but because the design is so poor it needs more documenting and the code is so tangled we don't dare try to fix it there.

If Steering organizations are not heavily into blaming, why would they want to record "origin" of a fault? To these organizations, "Origin" merely suggests where action might be taken to prevent a similar fault in the future, not which employee is to be taken out and crucified. Analyzing origins, however, requires skill and experience to determine the earliest possible prevention moment in our process. For instance, an error in the code might have been prevented if the requirements document were more clearly written. In that case, we should say that the "origin" was in the requirements stage.

(to be continued)

1 comment:

CV SoG said...

Not to to add to your TLA, but could the 'S' in STI be instead 'Solution' instead of 'System'?

The reason for asking is, just as the use of software or code implies guilt as you stated, but so can system potentially imply guilt on a particular team.

But often times I've found a 'Solution' is often tied to a set of Business Processes on which a number of different Systems are involved. The idea I had is that then the STI when logged maps directly to the business process being performed.